Analysis of whispering gallery modes resonators: wave propagation and energy balance models

E. Rivera-Pérez, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, E. Silvestre, M. V. Andrés

Abstract


Electromagnetic whispering gallery modes (WGM) are surface waves guided by the curvature of an interface. Microspheres, microdisks and microcylinders –as for example standard optical fibers– are high quality microresonators for the WGM. In fact, they can be regarded as compact and small ring resonators. Here, we present a comparison between wave propagation and energy balance models, stablishing the equivalence and discussing the basic characteristics of these two complementary approaches.


Keywords


optical cavities; optical fibers; whispering gallery modes, optical resonators

Full Text:

PDF

References


I. Villegas, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “All-optical tuning of WGM resonances in microspheres made of Er/Yb co-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26 (2014) 1534-1537.

E. Rivera-Pérez, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, J. L. Cruz, and A. Rodríguez-Cobos, “Tunable narrowband fiber laser with feedback based on WGM resonances of a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 38 (2013) 1636-1638.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450 (2007) 1214–1217.

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Refractometric sensor based on whispering-gallery modes of thin capillaries,” Opt. Express 15 (2007) 12011–12016.

E. Rivera-Pérez, I. L. Villegas, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, J. L. Cruz, and A. Rodríguez-Cobos, “Measurement of Pump-Induced Temperature Increase in Doped Fibers Using Whispering-Gallery Modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (2013) 2498-2500.

M. Sumetsky and Y. Dulashko, “Radius variation of optical fibers with angstrom accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 35 (2010) 4006-4008.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12 (2000) 182–183.

X. Roselló-Mechó, M. Delgado-Pinar, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, y M. V. Andrés, “Measurement of UV-induced absorption and scattering losses in photosensitive fibers”, Optics Letters 43 (2018) 2897-2900.

X. Roselló-Mechó, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Measurement of Pockels’ coefficients and demonstration of the anisotropy of the elasto-optic effect in optical fibers under axial strain,” Opt. Lett. 13 (2016) 2934-2937.

R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, M. Durán-Sánchez, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of tunable Sagnac high-birefringence loop filter for dual-wavelength laser application,” Appl. Opt. 50 (2011) 253-260.

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180 (2000) 255–262.

M.V. Andrés, and K.W.H. Foulds, “Optical-fiber resonant rings based on polarization-dependent cou-plers,” J. Lightwave Technol.8 (1990) 1212-1220.

C. L. Zou, Y. Yang, C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, X. W. Wu, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Taper-microsphere coupling with numerical calculation of coupled-mode theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008) 1895-1898.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, “Whispering gallery mode microresonators: Fundamentals and applications,” Riv. Nuovo Cimento 34 (2011) 435-488.

A. V. Kir’yanov, V. N. Filippov, and A. N. Starodumov, “Cw-pumped erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q switched with Co21:ZnSe crystal: modeling and experimental study”, Opt. Soc. Am. B 353 (2002) 353-359.

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M.V. Andrés y B. Gimeno, "Interrogation of whispering-gallery modes resonances in cylindrical microcavities by backreflection detection", Opt. Lett. 34 (2009) 1039-1041.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


SUPLEMENTO DE LA REVISTA MEXICANA DE FÍSICA, year 2, issue 1 January-March, 2021. Non-periodical journal published by Sociedad Mexicana de Física, A. C. Departamento de Física, 2º Piso, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Alcaldía Coyacán, C.P. 04510 , Ciudad de México. Apartado Postal 70-348. Tel. (+52)55-5622-4946, https://rmf.smf.mx/ojs/rmf-s, rmf@ciencias.unam.mx. Chief Editor: José Alejandro Ayala Mercado.  INDAUTOR Certificate of Reserve: 04-2019-080216411400-203, ISSN: in process, both granted by Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor.  Responsible for the last update of this issue, Technical Staff of Sociedad Mexicana de Física, A. C., Fís. Efraín Garrido Román, 2º. Piso, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Alcaldía Coyacán, C.P. 04510 , Ciudad de México. Date of last modification, March 29, 2021.

The responsibility of the materials published in Suplemento de la Revista Mexicana de Física rests solely with their authors and their content does not necessarily reflect the criteria of the Editorial Committee or the Sociedad Mexicana de Física. The total or partial reproduction of the texts hereby published is authorized as long as the complete source and the electronic address of the publications are cited.

Suplemento de la Revista Mexicana de Física by Sociedad Mexicana de Física, A. C. is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License