A CMOS transistor-only $\mathbf{2^{nd}}$ order low-pass $\mathbf{\Sigma \Delta}$ modulator

F. S, oval-Ibarra. , R. Rodríguez-Calderón


A simple procedure for designing a switched-current second-order $\Sigma \Delta $ modulator is presented. Since this design assumes a white noise spectrum due the quantization process, and by sizing the needed current branches according the proposed equivalent MOS transistor signal-to-noise ratio, a 2$^{nd}$ order $\Sigma \Delta $ modulator suitable to develop an analog-to-digital converter for audio applications has been obtained. The experimental results verify in high percentage the utility of the proposed model. However, additional noise effects have to be taken into account to increase the performance of the modulator.


Semiconductor devices; integrated circuits

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Revista Mexicana de Física

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