Diseño óptimo y realización de celdas solares de silicio para producción industrial. Estado del arte de la investigación en México

A. Morales-Acevedo

Abstract


We present here the work that the author and his group have developed during several years for the design and fabrication of silicon solar cells with selective emitters with potential for industrial production. The solar cell design methodology is based on the solution of the carrier transport equations in semiconductor devices, taking into account the variation of mobility and lifetime in non-uniformly doped regions (Gaussian profiles as obtained from diffusion or ion implantation processes), and phenomena such as Auger recombination and bandgap shrinkage in highly doped silicon. A computer program was also developed for the design of the metal grid, taking into account the lateral flux of current in the emitter, and also the technological limitations for the fabrication of the grid fingers. In addition, another computer program was developed for optimizing the thickness of anti-reflection layers, given the index of refraction, in order to have a complete set of programs for the design of silicon solar cells. We describe the processes required for making the silicon solar cells, and several experiments that have allowed the improvement of the conversion efficiency of this kind of solar cells. For example, silicon nitride layers were deposited by Plasma Enhanced Vapor Deposition (PECVD) from SiH$_{4}$/NH$_{3}$, and the deposition conditions were optimized for achieving surface state passivation at the emitter, and at the same time working as optimal anti-reflection layer. Similarly, a new process of aluminum alloying at the back of the cells was added to cell fabrication, leading to an increase in the efficiency by more than 20% with respect to cells made by conventional processes, due to effects of metallic impurity gettering. Finally, the benefit due to an optimum double anti-reflection layer TiO$_{2}$/SiO$_{2}$ is also shown.

Keywords


Solar cells; silicon; photovoltaic energy

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Revista Mexicana de Física

ISSN: 2683-2224 (on line), 0035-001X (print)

Bimonthly publication of Sociedad Mexicana de Física, A.C.
Departamento de Física, 2o. Piso, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.
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Apartado Postal 70-348, Coyoacán, 04511 Ciudad de México.
Tel/Fax: (52) 55-5622-4946, (52) 55-5622-4840. rmf@ciencias.unam.mx