Research skills R+D+I and industry 4.0, STEM and TRIZ and their application in the professional skills of applied physics students


  • Silvia Magdalena Coello Pisco Universidad de Guayaquil
  • B. Rodríguez Universidade Da Coruña
  • L. Banguera Universidad de Guayaquil
  • E. Baidal Universidad de Guayaquil



R D I investigative skills; Industry 4.0 skills; STEM skills; TRIZ; Motivational support technique; professional skills


The advancement of science and technology requires that future professionals in all fields of study have developed certain professional and investigative skills. The impact of the industrial revolution 4.0 has included the education sector. For these reasons, we designed a chart based on five competencies that are essential for the professional improvement of future graduates of the Engineering career. These competencies were: industry 4.0, TRIZ, STEM and research competencies in R+D+i projects. A didactic material was prepared to be applied to 225 basic level students in the subject of Applied Physics together with a rubric that determines the skills that the participants have developed during their study from the upper secondary level to the basic level of the career. engineering. The quantitative analysis of the study was carried out with inferential descriptive statistics, in which we found that the students have not developed certain skills: social skills, leadership, cooperative work, assertive communication, demotivation, lack of interest in contributing ideas in group work, no they know how to assign roles. A qualitative technique of motivational didactic development (survey of previous motivations, prejudices and feelings) and the inventive TRIZ were applied to promote the development of certain skills in students. The qualitative analysis of the study was carried out with the Chi Square technique, the results of our research confirm that the didactic-pedagogical-experimental technique has a significant impact on the improvement or development of professional skills in students regardless of the skills acquired in previous years. levels

Author Biography

Silvia Magdalena Coello Pisco, Universidad de Guayaquil

Departamento de Investigación FII

Docente Titular en Física y electricidad


Leamnson, R. Thinking about teaching and learning: Developing habits of learning with first Year College and university students. Edition (2003), United State.

González, I., & Granillo, R. “Competences of the industrial engineer in Industry 4.0”. Electronic Journal of Educational Research, 22, (2020) e30, 1-14.

CEO de Market you. “Professional skills, the new trend in the job search”. Available in: . Accessed November 10, 2021.

Galdeano Bienzobas, Carlos, & Valiente Barderas, Antonio. Professional skills. Chemical education, 21(2010) 1, 28-32.

Pantoja, L., Peña J., & Mendoza C. “Development of STEM skills in high school as a mechanism to promote continuity in higher education: Case of the Engineering Bases program. Ibero-American Journal for Educational Research and Development, 10(2020)20, Available in:

Martín, J. Find the solution in a TRIZ. International Business School. CEREM. Accessed May 13, 2022:

Lazio, R., & Ford, H. The U.S. Needs to Prepare Workers for STEM Jobs. 2019, SHRM. .

Berdonosov V. y Redkolis E. TRIZ Evolutionary Approach: Didactics. Procedia Engineering, 131(2015)1105-1112. ISSN 1877-7058, Retrieved from

Osborn, A.F. Applied Imagination. New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1957.

Altshuller, G. 40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Technical Innovation. Worcester, Massachusetts. Technical Innovation Center, Inc. 1997

Bukhman, I. The Ideas of TRIZ. In Technology for Innovation. 2021, pp. 1-9. Springer, Singapore.

Zwicky, F. Discovery Invention, Research Through the Morphological Approach. McMillan, 1969.

Berdonosov V. Concept of the TRIZ Evolutionary Approach in Education, Procedia Engineering, 131 (2015) 721-730, ISSN 1877-7058, Retrieved from

Escudero, A. “Redefinition of “networked learning” in the fourth Industrial Revolution”. Opening, 10(2018) 1, 149-163.

Brown, J. “The status of STEM Education Research”. Journal of STEM Education, 17(2016) 4, 52–56.

Sánchez, S. Educational results, challenges towards excellence. National Institute of educational evaluation. INEVAL, 2021. Ecuador. Available in: Accessed November 10, 2021.

Coello, S., González, Y., Hidalgo, J., Barzola Monteses J., and Alfonso, L. “Development of STEM skills in Physics university students through R+D+i projects. Case: estimation of the demand for electrical energy in rural and urban-marginal areas”. Mexican Journal of Physics E (México), 65(2019) 1.

Coello, S., Hidalgo, J., González, Y., Moreno, P., & Crespo, T. “Application of the STEM model through interdisciplinary collaborative projects for engineering students”. Congress Latin American Journal of Science Education. 2018 (LASERA). Available in:

Coello, S., Hidalgo, J., & Crespo, T. (2018). “The STEM model as a didactic methodological resource to build the critical scientific knowledge of Physics students”. Latin-American Journal of Physics Education, Vol. 12(2018) Nº. 2. ISSN-e 1870-9095.

Bosch, H., Di Blasi M., Pelem M. “New pedagogical paradigm for teaching science and mathematics”. Educational Research Network in Experimental Mathematics for Engineering and Technology, Sarmiento 440 P.3., (1041) Buenos Aires – Argentina. ACI: VOL. 2(2011) 3, pp. 131-140.

Blández, J., González V., López A. “Responsible teacher training through action research”. International Educational Magazine, 2006, Vol. 24 N°1, p. 72

Domínguez, P., Oliveros M., Coronado M., and Valdez B. (2019). “Engineering challenges: STEMA educational approach in the industrial revolution 4.0”. Educational innovation (México, DF), 19(2019) 80, 15-32.

Berkeley, A. Research skills for management studies, 1ra. Edition, 2004, New York. Available in: Accessed 15 November 2021.

Vo H., Zhu C. & Diep, N. “The effect of blended learning on student performance at course-level in higher education: A meta-analysis”. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 53(2017) 17–28.

Coello, S., Flores, J., Hidalgo, J., González, Y. “The wrong conceptualization of the electric field with integral calculus in virtual classes in applied physics students”. Mexican Journal of Physics E, vol 19 (2021) No.

Mayer, J., Salovey R. What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence. 1ra- Edition 1997, New York: Basic Books.

Flores, J., & Coello, S. (2007). “Application of TRIZ in the Development of a Method for Teaching Engineering”. Latin-American Journal of Physics Education, ISSN-e 1870-9095. Lat. Am. J. Sci. Educ. 4, (1).

EC Ministry of Education of Ecuador. Integral Human Development Guide. Aimed at teachers for the implementation of Skills for Life in the National Educational System. First Edition, Quito, Ecuador. 2018 Pages, 24, 25. Retrieved from:

Zúñiga, F., & Juca, M. “Didactic strategies in STEM-STEAM education”. Educational technologies and teaching strategies. (2020) Págs. 1868-1882.

Coello, S., & González, Y. “Application of a didactic device based on the holistic model of geometric thinking to improve spatial cognition in vector analysis problems”. Mexican Journal of Physics E, 64(2018) 1, 70-80. Retrieved on December 28, 2021, Available in

Martínez, M. “The pedagogical foundations that support the teaching practice of teachers who enter and graduate from the master's degree in socio-educational intervention. Ibero-American Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 6 (2015) 15 pp. 129- 144.

Mae S. Cognitive Theory of Learning. (2021). Recovered: Accessed December 12, 2021.

Becker, K., Park, K. “Effects of integrative approaches among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects on students ACTM learning: A preliminary meta-analysis”. Journal of STEM Education, 12(2011) 5, 23–38.

Fiszbein A., Cosentino B. “The challenge of skills development in Latin America: A diagnosis of the problems and solutions of public policy”. Washington, DC: Dialog Inter-american y Mathematics Policy Research.2016 Available in: Accessed 12 November 2021.

Castro, W. “Proposal for the evaluation of students trained under the STEAM methodology”. [Master's Thesis, Cooperative University of Colombia]. Institutional Repository UCC 2021. Accessed 15 November 2021

Piaget, J. The equilibration of the cognitive structures. 3rd. Edition 1978, Spain, 2012.

Vergara, G., & Cuentas, H. “Current validity of pedagogical models in the educational context”. Option, 2015 Year 31 (Special 6): 914 934.

Yakman, G., Lee, Y. (2012). “Exploring the exemplary STEAM education in the U.S as a practical educational framework for Korea”. Journal of Korea Association Science Education, 32 (2012) 6, 1072 – 1086.

Carvajal, J. “The fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 and its impact on higher education in engineering in Latin America and the Caribbean”. (Lecture).15th LACCEI International Multi-Conference for Engineering, Education, and Technology: Global Partnerships for Development and Engineering Education. Boca Ratón, EE UU 2017.

Silberman, M. Active learning: 101 strategies to teach any subject. 5th Edition, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2013. Available in:

Dueñas, M. “Importance of emotional intelligence: a new challenge for educational orientation”. Education XXI numb. 5, 2002, pp. 77- 96.

Coello S., Flores J., & Venegas J. “Design and implementation of a methodological proposal for solving problems in the interpretation of graphs in one-dimensional movement, using self-regulated and collaborative learning”. Latin-American Journal of Physics Education, Lat. Am. J. Phys. Educ. Vol. 10 (2016), No. 4, Dec. 2016. ISSN 1870-9095

Chmarkh, M., & Wang. Book Review: Navigating Challenges in Qualitative Educational Research: Research, Interrupted, 2021.

Tójar Hurtado Juan. Qualitative Research: Understanding and acting. Publisher The Wall. Madrid Spain, 2006. ISBN:84-7133.757-6

Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, M. Investigation methodology. Sixth edition 2015. Editorial: Mc-Graw-Hill. México. Available in:

Farmonova, S. Pedagogical and Innovative Activities in Project Education. International Journal of Culture and Modernity, 11 (2021), 176-180.

Mystakidis, S., Papantzikos, G., & Stylios. Virtual reality escape rooms for STEM education in industry 4.0: Greek teacher’s perspectives. In 2021 6th South-East Europe Design Automation, Computer Engineering, Computer Networks and Social Media Conference (SEEDA-CECNSM) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Haryani, E., Coben, W. W., Pleasants, B. A., & Fetters, M. K. (2021). Analysis of Teachers' Resources for Integrating the Skills of Creativity and Innovation, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Collaboration, and Communication in Science Classrooms. Journal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 10(2021) 1, 92-102.

Dunaeva, L., & Bourina, H. Pedagogical process models in the educational environment. In INTED2021 Proceedings (pp. 24-29, 2021). IATED.

Ramos, J. L., Cattaneo, A. A., de Jong, F. P., and Espadeiro, R. G. Pedagogical models for the facilitation of teacher professional development via video-supported collaborative learning. A review of the state of the art. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 1-24 (2021).

Román, F. G. New Alternatives for Learning and Teaching (ed. 2006). México, D.F., México: Trillas.

Monarrez R. Alfonso. My 500 teaching strategies and their skills for primary education. (ed, 2016). New Culiacan, Mexico.

Ni, X., Samet, A., & Cavallucci, D. Replicating TRIZ Reasoning Through Deep Learning. In International TRIZ Future Conference (pp. 330-339, 2021). Springer, Cham.

Cabero, J. & Barroso, J. The Use of Expert Judgment for ICT Assessment: The Expert Competence Coefficient. Bordón 65 (2013) 2, 25¬38, ISSN: 0210¬5934

Fryn, F. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research – What Is What? Imotion. Accessed October 2021.

Hurtado, J. Research Methodology: A Guide to a Holistic Understanding of Science (4a. Ed. 2012). Bogotá-Caracas: Ciea-Sypal y Quirón.

Vera Barahona J. Vera Chang J. Summary of experimental design principles. Compas Group Editions, 2018. ISBN: 978-9942-33-068-0. First edition.

Loayza, J., Silva, M., López, H., Tarmeño, D., and Riquelme, D. “Application of the inventive methodology TRIZ for the analysis of technological innovations in industrial processes, case: obtaining bleached cellulose pulp (or paper pulp). Peruvian. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 19(2017) 2, 47–59. Recovered from:

Núñez, J., & González J. “Self-regulated learning as a means and goal for education”. Redalyt Magazine 27. University of Oviedo. University of Minho, Portugal (2006)

Acosta, B. “Meaningful learning and constructivism”. Campus Education Digital Teaching Magazine. Available in: . Accessed 15 November 2021

Herrán, A. “Teaching techniques for a more formative teaching". In N. Álvarez Aguilar and R. Cardoso Pérez (Coords.), “Strategies and methodologies for student training today. Camagüey (Cuba): University of Camagüey 2011. ISBN: 978-959-161404-9. Available in:

Salas, D. “Revolution 4.0”, Engineering and Innovation Magazine 4 (2016), No. 2. Available in: Accessed December 10, 2021.

Qureshi, M. A., Khaskheli, A., Qureshi, J. A., Raza, S. A., & Yousufi, S. Q. Factors affecting students’ learning performance through collaborative learning and engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 1-21, 2021.

Chorfi, A., Hedjazi, D., Aouag, S., and Boubiche, D. Problem-based collaborative learning groupware to improve computer programming skills. Behaviour & Information Technology, 41(2022) 1, 139-158.

Supena, I., Darmuki, A., & Hariyadi, A. The Influence of 4C (Constructive, Critical, Creativity, Collaborative) Learning Model on Students' Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2021) 3, 873-892.

Chen, R. H. (2021). Fostering students’ workplace communicative competence and collaborative mindset through an inquiry-based learning design. Education sciences, 11(2021) 1, 17.

Aslan, A. (2021). Problem-based learning in live online classes: Learning achievement, problem-solving skill, communication skill, and interaction. Computers & Education, 171, 104237.

Owens, A. D., & Hite, R. L. Enhancing student communication competencies in STEM using virtual global collaboration project based learning. Research in Science & Technological Education, 40(2022) 1, 76-102.

Micari, M., Pazos, P. Beyond grades: improving college students’ social-cognitive outcomes in STEM through a collaborative learning environment. Learning Environ Res 24, 123–136 (2021).

Miranda, J., Navarrete, C., Noguez, J., Molina-Espinosa, J. M., Ramírez-Montoya, M. S., Navarro-Tuch, S. A. & Molina, A. The core components of education 4.0 in higher education: Three case studies in engineering education. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 93 (2021), 107278.

Kocdar, S., Bozkurt, A., and Goru Dogan, T. Engineering through distance education in the time of the fourth industrial revolution: Reflections from three decades of peer reviewed studies. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 29(2021) 4, 931-949.

Bamberg, K. & Verkuyten, M. Internal and external motivation to respond without prejudice: a person-centered approach. Journal of Social Psychology. The Journal of Social Psychology, 1(2021)20.

Cwik, S., and Singh, C. (2021). How perception of learning environment predicts male and female students’ grades and motivational outcomes in algebra-based introductory physics courses. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 17(2), 02014

Baena, F., Guari, A., Mora J., Sauza J. and Retat S. (2017). “Learning Factory: The Path to Industry 4.0”. Procedia Manufacturing, 9, 73-80 (2017).

Safari, A., Naderi, M. & Gheshlaghi, S. The Effect of TRIZ Problem Solving Skills on Creative and Critical Thinking Skills of Primary School Students in District 5 of Tehran, Iran. Pouyesh en Educación en Humanidades, 7 (2021) 22, 77-96.

Yakman, G. (2008). “STEAM Education: an overview of creating model of integrative education”. M.J de Vries (Ed), PATT – 17 and PATT – 19 proceeding (pp. 335 - 358). Reston, V. A: I.T.T.E.A

Madrid, J. Cognitive learning theories: Restructuring theory. 9th Edition 2006, Madrid, Spain.

Demirkesen, S., and Zhang, C. Lean TRIZ method to prevent safety related problems in the construction industry. Journal of Construction Engineering, 4(2021) 2, 068-079.

Arenas, I. D. R., Medina, E. J., & Callejas, R. Y. Professional skills and Industry 4.0: exploratory analysis for industrial and administrative engineering in Medellín. Inter-American Journal of Research Education and Pedagogy. RIIEP, 14(2021) 2, 169-194.

Bethencourt, P. (2007). “Emotional strategy: the invisible power”. Human Capital Magazine No 213, 96.

Pane, A. N., Andra, D., & Distrik, I. W. The development physics e-module based PBL–Integrated STEM to improve higher-order thinking skills on static fluid material. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1796 (2021), No. 1, p. 012086). IOP Publishing.




How to Cite

S. M. Coello Pisco, B. Rodríguez, L. Banguera, and E. Baidal, “Research skills R+D+I and industry 4.0, STEM and TRIZ and their application in the professional skills of applied physics students”, Rev. Mex. Fis. E, vol. 21, no. 1 Jan-Jun, pp. 010212 1–, Jan. 2024.