Analysis of whispering gallery modes resonators: wave propagation and energy balance models

Authors

  • E. Rivera-Pérez Universidad de Guanajuato
  • A. Díez Universidad de Valencia
  • J. L. Cruz Universidad de Valencia
  • E. Silvestre Universidad de Valencia
  • M. V. Andrés Universidad de Valencia http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0103-8644

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31349.SuplRevMexFis.2.1.81

Keywords:

optical cavities, optical fibers, whispering gallery modes, optical resonators

Abstract

Electromagnetic whispering gallery modes (WGM) are surface waves guided by the curvature of an interface. Microspheres, microdisks and microcylinders –as for example standard optical fibers– are high quality microresonators for the WGM. In fact, they can be regarded as compact and small ring resonators. Here, we present a comparison between wave propagation and energy balance models, stablishing the equivalence and discussing the basic characteristics of these two complementary approaches.

Author Biographies

E. Rivera-Pérez, Universidad de Guanajuato

Departamento de Física,

A. Díez, Universidad de Valencia

Departamento de Física Aplicada - ICMUV

J. L. Cruz, Universidad de Valencia

Departamento de Física Aplicada - ICMUV

E. Silvestre, Universidad de Valencia

Departamento de Óptica - ICMUV

M. V. Andrés, Universidad de Valencia

Professor of Applied Physics at the University of Valencia, Spain.

References

I. Villegas, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “All-optical tuning of WGM resonances in microspheres made of Er/Yb co-doped optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26 (2014) 1534-1537.

E. Rivera-Pérez, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, J. L. Cruz, and A. Rodríguez-Cobos, “Tunable narrowband fiber laser with feedback based on WGM resonances of a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 38 (2013) 1636-1638.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450 (2007) 1214–1217.

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, and B. Gimeno, “Refractometric sensor based on whispering-gallery modes of thin capillaries,” Opt. Express 15 (2007) 12011–12016.

E. Rivera-Pérez, I. L. Villegas, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, J. L. Cruz, and A. Rodríguez-Cobos, “Measurement of Pump-Induced Temperature Increase in Doped Fibers Using Whispering-Gallery Modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25 (2013) 2498-2500.

M. Sumetsky and Y. Dulashko, “Radius variation of optical fibers with angstrom accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 35 (2010) 4006-4008.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and T. E. Dimmick, “High-resolution measurement of the fiber diameter variations using whispering gallery modes and no optical alignment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12 (2000) 182–183.

X. Roselló-Mechó, M. Delgado-Pinar, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, y M. V. Andrés, “Measurement of UV-induced absorption and scattering losses in photosensitive fibers”, Optics Letters 43 (2018) 2897-2900.

X. Roselló-Mechó, M. Delgado-Pinar, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Measurement of Pockels’ coefficients and demonstration of the anisotropy of the elasto-optic effect in optical fibers under axial strain,” Opt. Lett. 13 (2016) 2934-2937.

R. I. Álvarez-Tamayo, M. Durán-Sánchez, O. Pottiez, E. A. Kuzin, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, and A. Flores-Rosas, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of tunable Sagnac high-birefringence loop filter for dual-wavelength laser application,” Appl. Opt. 50 (2011) 253-260.

O. Duhem, J.F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Study of in fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on two spaced 3-dB long period gratings surrounded by a refractive index higher than that of silica,” Opt. Commun. 180 (2000) 255–262.

M.V. Andrés, and K.W.H. Foulds, “Optical-fiber resonant rings based on polarization-dependent cou-plers,” J. Lightwave Technol.8 (1990) 1212-1220.

C. L. Zou, Y. Yang, C. H. Dong, Y. F. Xiao, X. W. Wu, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Taper-microsphere coupling with numerical calculation of coupled-mode theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 (2008) 1895-1898.

G. C. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, “Whispering gallery mode microresonators: Fundamentals and applications,” Riv. Nuovo Cimento 34 (2011) 435-488.

A. V. Kir’yanov, V. N. Filippov, and A. N. Starodumov, “Cw-pumped erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q switched with Co21:ZnSe crystal: modeling and experimental study”, Opt. Soc. Am. B 353 (2002) 353-359.

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M.V. Andrés y B. Gimeno, "Interrogation of whispering-gallery modes resonances in cylindrical microcavities by backreflection detection", Opt. Lett. 34 (2009) 1039-1041.

Downloads

Published

2021-06-24 — Updated on 2021-07-06

Versions

Issue

Section

FÍSICA DE FIBRAS ÓPTICAS EN MÉXICO, EN MEMORIA DEL DR. EVGENY A. KUZIN