Review of SDM/WDM technology and its application in data transmission


  • J. R. Warnes Lora instituto nacional de astrofísica óptica y electrónica
  • L. J. Quintero-Rodríguez instituto nacional de astrofísica óptica y electrónica
  • B. Tshibangu-Mbuebue instituto nacional de astrofísica óptica y electrónica
  • A. García-Juárez Depto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora,
  • I. E. Zaldívar-Huerta instituto nacional de astrofísica óptica y electrónica.



Space Division Multiplexing, Wavelength Division Multiplexing, Few-Mode Fiber, Photonic Lantern.


In this paper we present a review focused on Space Division Multiplexing (SDM) technology. A summary of the most recent works on innovation in the efficiency of SDM as well as its application in data transmission is described. SDM is a technology that has improved the capacity of optical communication systems. Combined with other optical technologies has significantly increased the capacity of information that is sent through an optical fiber.


T. Mizuno and Y. Miyamoto, “High-capacity dense space division multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 35, pp. 108–117, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.yofte.2016.09.015.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics, vol. 6, no. 4, p. 413, 2014, doi: 10.1364/aop.6.000413.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and S. G. Leon-Saval, “Geometric requirements for photonic lanterns in space division multiplexing,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 24, p. 27123, 2012, doi: 10.1364/OE.20.027123.

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns,” Nanophotonics, vol. 2, no. 5–6, pp. 429–440, 2013, doi: 10.1515/nanoph-2013-0035.

B. Ercan, R. Ryf, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. S. Gil, S. G. Leon-Saval, and N. K. Fontaine, “Mode-selective dissimilar fiber photonic-lantern spatial multiplexers for few-mode fiber,” 39th Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2013), no. 1, pp. 1221–1223, 2013, doi: 10.1049/cp.2013.1680.

S. Yerolatsitis, I. Gris-Sánchez, and T. A. Birks, “Adiabatically-tapered fiber mode multiplexers,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 608, 2014, doi: 10.1364/OE.22.000608.

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, and S. Yerolatsitis, “The photonic lantern,” Opt. InfoBase Conf. Pap., vol. 167, pp. 107–167, 2014, doi: 10.1364/cleo_si.2014.sm2n.3.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 1, p. 1036, 2014, doi: 10.1364/OE.22.001036.

A. M. Velázquez-Benítez et al., “Scaling photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27072-2.

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and M. Englund, “Multimode fiber devices with single-mode performance,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 19, p. 2545, 2005, doi: 10.1364/OL.30.002545.

S. G. Leon-saval, “Multimode Photonics , Optical Transition Devices for Multimode Control,” no. July, pp. 95–97, 2014.

J. von Hoyningen-Huene, R. Ryf, and P. Winzer, “LCoS-based mode shaper for few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 15, p. 18097, 2013, doi: 10.1364/OE.21.018097.

Z. Tan et al., “High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 751–754, 2017, doi: 10.1109/LPT.2017.2683526.

X. Shen, J. M. Kahn, and M. A. Horowitz, “by adaptive optics,” vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 2985–2987, 2005.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1018–1026, 2009, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2008.2005040.

L. Ma, N. Hanzawa, K. Tsujikawa, and Y. Azuma, “Launch device using endlessly single-mode PCF for ultra-wideband WDM transmission in graded-index multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 22, p. 24903, 2012, doi: 10.1364/oe.20.024903.

J. Yu et al., “Weakly-coupled mode division multiplexing over conventional multi-mode fiber with intensity modulation and direct detection,” Front. Optoelectron., vol. 12, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s12200-018-0834-9.

M. Wada et al., “High density few-mode multicore fibre amplifier for energy efficient SDM transmission,” IET Conf. Publ., vol. 2019, no. CP765, pp. 6–9, 2019, doi: 10.1049/cp.2019.0918.

E. Le Taillandier De Gabory, K. Matsumoto, and H. Takeshita, “Advances in Power-Efficient SDM Transmission Technologies,” Asia Commun. Photonics Conf. ACP, vol. 2018-Octob, pp. 2018–2020, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ACP.2018.8596122.

G. Rademacher et al., “Long-Haul Transmission over Few-Mode Fibers with Space-Division Multiplexing,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1382–1388, 2018, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2017.2786671.

H. Hu et al., “Ultrahigh-Spectral-Efficiency WDM/SDM Transmission Using PDM-1024-QAM Probabilistic Shaping with Adaptive Rate,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1304–1308, 2018, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2017.2787340.

J. C. Alvarado-Zacarias et al., “7-core X 6-mode photonic lantern mode multiplexer,” IET Conf. Publ., vol. 2019, no. CP765, pp. 4–7, 2019, doi: 10.1049/cp.2019.0919.

J. Cui et al., “A High-selectivity Photonic Lantern Demultiplexer for Weakly-coupled Mode Group Demultiplexing over MMF,” 2019 18th Int. Conf. Opt. Commun. Networks, ICOCN 2019, pp. 1–3, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ICOCN.2019.8934086.

J. R. Warnes-Lora, I. E. Zaldivar-Huerta, J. Rodriguez-Asomoza, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. E. Antonio-López, and A. García-Juárez, “Performance Evaluation of a Photonic Lantern by Transmitting Microwave Signals,” 2018 Photonics North, PN 2018, vol. 10, p. 2013, 2018, doi: 10.1109/PN.2018.8438830.

C. Castro et al., “15 × 200 Gbit/s 16-QAM SDM Transmission over an Integrated 7-Core Cladding-Pumped Repeatered Multicore Link in a Recirculating Loop,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 349–354, 2018, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2017.2741495.

F. Bao, T. Morioka, L. K. Oxenløwe, and H. Hu, “300 Gb/s IM/DD based SDM-WDM-PON with laserless ONUs,” Opt. Express, vol. 26, no. 7, p. 7949, 2018, doi: 10.1364/oe.26.007949.

N. P. Diamantopoulos et al., “400-Gb/s DMT-SDM transmission based on membrane DML-array-on-silicon,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1805–1812, 2019, doi: 10.1109/JLT.2018.2885792.

D. Soma, Y. Wakayama, S. Beppu, S. Sumita, T. Tsuritani, and P. Paper, “10 . 16-Peta-B / s Dense SDM / WDM Transmission Over 6-Mode 19-Core Fiber Across the C + L Band,” vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1362–1368, 2018.

D. Qian, E. Ip, M. Huang, M. Li, A. Dogariu, and S. Zhang, “1 . 05Pb / s Transmission with 109b / s / Hz Spectral Efficiency using Hybrid Single- and Few-Mode Cores,” no. 1, pp. 5–6.

D. Soma, K. Igarashi, Y. Wakayama, K. Takeshima, and Y. Kawaguchi, “2.05 Peta-bit/s Super-Nyquist-WDM SDM Transmission Using 9 . 8-km 6-mode 19-core Fiber in Full C band,” no. 1, pp. 195–197, 2015.




How to Cite

Warnes Lora JR, Quintero-Rodríguez LJ, Tshibangu-Mbuebue B, García-Juárez A, Zaldívar-Huerta IE. Review of SDM/WDM technology and its application in data transmission. Supl. Rev. Mex. Fis. [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 31 [cited 2022 Oct. 4];2(1 Jan-Mar):91-7. Available from: