Noise fiber lasers
Keywords:Fiber lasers, photon noise, Bose-Einstein statistics
AbstractIn this paper, we present a brief review of the noise operation mode of fiber lasers. These lasers were studied recently by collaborative group that includes researchers, professors, and Ph.D. students from the Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C. (Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico) and from the Universidad de Valencia (Valencia, Spain). Meanwhile, the pioneer works in this topic important for understanding the physics behind fiber lasers’ operation and for practical applications were done with the active participation of Dr. Evgeny Kuzin from the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Puebla, Mexico) and Dr. Georgina Beltrán-Pérez from the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (Puebla, Mexico), whose Ph.D. study was supervised by him. The fiber lasers under study were based on commercial erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers as gain media and operated in continuous-wave and actively Q-switched regimes. All these fiber lasers were arranged in Fabry-Perot cavity configuration with fiber Bragg gratings as narrow-band reflectors. In the case of actively Q-switched lasers a standard fiberized acousto-optic modulator was placed close to the rear (100%) reflector. The most important conclusion of all the works grounding the present review is that, independently on laser operation regime, continuous wave or actively Q-switched, these fiber lasers operate in the extremely noise regime with the photon statistics described by Bose-Einstein distribution inherent to narrow-band thermal light sources.
S. Fu et al. “Review of recent progress on single-frequency fiber lasers [Invited].” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, 1407–1414 (2017).
R. R. Alfano, The supercontinuum laser source: the ultimate white light. 3rd edition (New York: Springer, 2016).
D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: Current status and future perspectives [Invited].” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 27, B63–B92 (2010).
Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Pulsed Regimes of Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Q-Switched Using Acousto-Optical Modulator.” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 20, 0902208 (2014).
C. Cuadrado-Laborde et al. “Transform-limited pulses generated by an actively Q-switched distributed fiber laser.” Opt. Lett. 33, 2590–2592 (2008).
P. K. Cheng et al. “Ultrafast soliton and stretched-pulse switchable mode-locked fiber laser with hybrid structure of multimode fiber based saturable absorber.” Scientific Reports 9, 10106 (2019).
L. Wang et al. “Femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser at 1 μm via optical microfiber dispersion management.” Scientific Reports 8, 4732 (2018).
J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (New York: Wiley, ch. 6, 2000).
S. M. Pietralunga, P. Martelli, and M. Martinelli, “Photon statistics of amplified spontaneous emission in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing regime.” Opt. Lett. 28, 152–154 (2003).
P. Muniz-Cánovas, Y. O. Barmenkov. A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser as pulsed source of narrowband amplified spontaneous emission,” Scientific Reports 9, 13073 (2019).
Y. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, P. Muniz-Cánovas, J. L. Cruz, and Miguel V. Andrés, “Photon noise in continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Chapter of book “Optical fiber technology and applications: resent advantages,” IOP Publishing (Bristol, England), to be published.
Anthony E. Siegman, Lasers (Sausalito, CA: University Science Books, 1986).
Govind P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. 3rd edition (San Diego: Academic Press, 2001).
S. A. Kolpakov, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. D. Guzman-Chavez, A. V. Kir’yanov, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Distributed model for actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron., 47, 928-934 (2011).
J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, I. L. Villegas-Garcia, G. Beltrán-Pérez, and E. A. Kuzin, “Spectral Dynamics of Actively Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers”, IEEE Phot. Technol. Lett., 29, 683-686 (2017).
J. A. Minguela-Gallardo, Y. O. Barmenkov, A. V. Kir’yanov, and G. Beltrán-Pérez, “Photon statistics of actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 34, 1407–1414 (2017).
P. H. Reddy, A. V. Kir’yanov, A. Dhar, S. Das, D. Dutta, M. Pal, Y. O. Barmenkov, J. A. Minguella-Gallardo, S. K. Bhadra, and M. C. Paul, “Fabrication of ultra-high numerical aperture GeO2-doped fiber and its use for broadband supercontinuum generation,” Appl. Opt., 56, 9315-9324 (2017).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Yuri O. Barmenkov, Pablo Muniz-Canovas, Alexander V. Kir'yanov, Josue Adin Minguela-Gallardo, Georgina Beltrán-Pérez, Jose Luis Cruz, Miguel V. Andres
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the Suplemento de la Revista Mexicana de Física right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.