A Semi-analytical Method of Calculating Nuclear Collision Trajectory in the QCD Phase Diagram
Keywords:Quark-gluon plasma, QCD phase diagram, chemical potential, equation of state, high baryon density
The finite nuclear thickness affects the energy density (t) and conserved-charge densities such as the net-baryon density nB(t) produced in heavy ion collisions. While the effect is small at high collision energies where the Bjorken energy density formula for the initial state is valid, the effect is large at low collision energies, where the nuclear crossing time is not small compared to the parton formation time. The temperature T(t) and chemical potentials µ(t) of the dense matter can be extracted from the densities for a given equation of state (EOS). Therefore, including the nuclear thickness is essential for the determination of the T-µB trajectory in the QCD phase diagram for relativistic nuclear collisions at low to moderate energies such as the RHIC-BES energies. In this proceeding, we will first discuss our semi-analytical method that includes the nuclear thickness effect and its results on the densities є(t), nB(t), nQ(t), and nS(t). Then, we will show the extracted T(t), µB(t), µQ(t), and µS(t) for a quark-gluon plasma using the ideal gas EOS with quantum or Boltzmann statistics. Finally, we will show the results on the T-µB trajectories in relation to the possible location of the QCD critical end point. This semi-analytical model provides a convenient tool for exploring the trajectories of nuclear collisions in the QCD phase diagram.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Zi-Wei Lin, Todd Mendenhall (Author)
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