Hydrophobization of paper intended for packaging


  • Driss Dergham Center For Development of Advanced Technologies
  • M. Ouchabane Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancées Cité du 20 Août 1956
  • H. Sakheri Université Saad Dahleb
  • F. Lekoui Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancées Cité du 20 Août 1956
  • S. Hassani Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancées Cité du 20 Août 1956




Hydrophobic surface, a-C:H layers, PECVD, paper substrates


Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology [1-7]. Among plasma technology methods used to prepare these surfaces, the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, which provides the advantages of low cost, simple processing, and easy to form micro-nano structure.

In this work, a treatment of surface paper for improving hydrophobicity using a PECVD technique was realized, paper substrates was treated by CH4 plasma , the substrates were held on a grounded substrate, with time variation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 min, while pressure and power have been kept constant at 8.10-2 and 100 W respectively.

After deposition we proceeded to carry out structural and morphological characterization of the treated surfaces, by (SEM), AFM, FTIR and then through contact angle measurements. It is found that all layers are hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic. Except the layers treated for 10 minutes which are hydrophobic with a contact angle equal to 137.7° , the layers treated for 05, 15 and 20 minutes show superhydrophobic surfaces with a contact angles equal to 153.8°, , 149.2° and 156◦ respectively.


L. B. Boinovich and A. M. Emelyanenko, principles of design, properties and applications, Hydrophobic materials and coatings: Russian Chemical Reviews, 77 (2008) 583.

S. Pieter, Wetting and hydrophobic modification of cellulose surfaces for paper applications. Journal of Materials Science 48 (2013) 6455.

L. Xie, Z. Tang, L. Jiang, V. Breedveld and D W. Hess. Creation of superhydrophobic wood surfaces by plasma etching and thinfilm deposition, Surface and coatings technology, 281 (2015) 125.

X. Liu and C. Luo. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic channels, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 20 (2010) DOI:10.1088/0960-1317/20/2/025029.

W. Barthlott, and C. Neinhuis, Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces, Planta, 202 (1997) 1.

C. Neinhuis and W. Barthlott, Characterization and distribution of water-repellent, self-cleaning plant surfaces, Annals of botany, 79 (1997) 667.

Otten, Alexander, Herminghaus and Stephan. How plants keep dry: a physicist’s point of view, Langmuir, 20 (2004) 2405.

T.A. Desai, D. J. Hansford, L. Leoni, M. Essenpreis and M. Ferrari, Nanoporous anti-fouling silicon membranes for biosensor applications, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 15 (2000) 453.

B. Jeong and A. Gutowska, Lessons from nature: stimuliresponsive polymers and their biomedical applications, Trends in biotechnology 20 (2002) 305.

M. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Zhang, S. Xia and J. Yang, MEMS/microelectronics self-assembly based on analogy of Langmuir?Blodgett approach, Microelectronic Engineering, 86 (2009) 2279.

T. Liu, Y. Yin, S. Chen, X. Chang, and S. Cheng, Superhydrophobic surfaces improve corrosion resistance of copper in seawater, Electrochimica Acta, 52 (2007) 3709.

Q. B. Meng, S-II. Lee, C. Nah and Y-S. Lee, Preparation of waterborne polyurethanes using an amphiphilic diol for breathable

waterproof textile coatings, Progress in Organic Coatings, 66 (2009) 382,

R. N. Wenzel, Resistance of solid surfaces to wetting by water, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 28 (1936) 988.

G. R. J. Artus, S. Jung, J. Zemmermann and H.-P. Gautschi, Silicone nanofilaments and their application as superhydrophobic coatings, Advanced Materials, 18 (2006) 2758.

N. Zhao et al., Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic coating with a micro?nano?binary structure, Macromolecular

rapid communications, 26 (2005) 1075.

L. Huang, K. Chen, C. Len and R. Yang, Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic high opacity paper with titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Journal of Materials Science, 46 (2011) 2600.

C.-T.Hsieh, J.M.Chen, R-R.kuo and T-S.Lin, Influence of surface roughness on water-and oil-repellent surfaces coated with nanoparticles, Applied Surface Science, 240 (2005) 318.

J.C.Thies, G. J. W. Meijers, J. A. Pitkin, E.E. Currie, C.F. Tronche and JE.Southwell, Hydrophobic coatings comprising reactive nano-particles , Patent Application Publication (2006) US 2006/0286305 A1.

M. Ouchabane, M. Aoucher, A. Sekkal, K. Henda and H. Lahmar, Structural Analysis of Diamond?Like Carbon Films Deposited by RF (13.56 MHz) in a Methane Gas Plasma Atmosphere, Plasma Processes and Polymers (2005) 87, https://doi.org/10.1002/3527605584.ch7

S. Djerourou, M. Djebli, and M. Ouchabane, Plasma parameters of RF capacitively coupled discharge: comparative study between a plane cathode and a large hole dimensions multi-hollow cathode, The European Physical Journal Applied Physics 85 (2019) 10801

D.Neas, and P. Klapetek, Gwyddion-Free SPM (AFM, SNOM/NSOM, STM, MFM,...) data analysis software.

Z. Tang, Z. J. Zhang, K. Narumi, Y. Xu, H. Naramoto and S. Nagai, Effect of mass-selected ion species on structure and

properties of diamond-like carbon films, Journal of applied physics 89 (2001) 1959.

S. Kataria, S. Dhara, H. C. Barshilia, S. Dash, and A. K. Tyagi, Evolution of coefficient of friction with deposition temperature in diamond like carbon thin films, Journal of applied physics, 112 (2012). 023525.

M. Pandey, D. Bhatacharyya, D. S. Patil, K. Ramachandran and N. Venkatramani, Diamond-like carbon coatings: AFM and ellipsometric studies, Surface and coatings technology, 182 (2004) 24.

K.N Pandiyaraj et al., Influence of bias voltage on diamond like carbon (DLC) film deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET)film surfaces using PECVD and its blood compatibility, Diamond and Related Materials 19 (2010) 1085.

T.W. Scharf and I. L. Singer, Thickness of diamond-like carbon coatings quantified with Raman spectroscopy, Thin Solid Films

(2003) 138.

S-min. Baek, T. Shirafuji, S-p.Cho, N. Saito and O. Takai, Oxygen Gas Barrier Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Deposited with a Pulse-Biased Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Method, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 49 (2010) 08JF10.

W. Xie et al., Colorful Carbon Nanopopcorns Formed by Codepositing C60 with Diamond-like Carbon Followed by Reaction with Water Vapor, Chemistry Letters, 44 (2015) 1205.

B. Bhushan and Y.C. Jung, Natural and biomimetic artificial surfaces for superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, low adhesion, and drag reduc, Progress in Materials Science, 56 (2011) 1.

S. Noh, and S. Youn Moon, Formation and characterization of hydrophobic glass surface treated by atmospheric pressure

He/CH4, Journal of applied physics, 115 (2014) 043307.

N. Farinella, G. Matos and M. Arruda, Grape bagasse as a potential biosorbent of metals in effluent treatments, Bioresource technology, 98 (2007)1940.

M. Zhou and L. Andrews, Infrared spectra of the C2O4+ cation and C2O4? anion isolated in solid neon, The Journal of Chemical Physics, 110 (1999) 6820.

V-P. Dinh, T-D-T. Huynh, H.M.Le and D.N.Van, Insight into the adsorption mechanisms of methylene blue and chromium

(III) from aqueous solution onto pomelo fruit peel, RSC advances, 9 (2019) 25847.

M. Roy, K. Mali, N. Joshi and D. Misra, Deposition of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films with enhanced sp3-C bonding on nanocrystalline palladium interlayer, Diamond and Related Materials, 16 (2007) 517.

V.P.Tolstoy, I. V. Chernyshova and V. A. Skryshevsky, Handbook of infrared spectroscopy of ultrathin films 2003: John Wiley & Sons.

E. Mohsen Soltani, Z. Ghorannevis and M. Shirazi, Effect of Ar/CH4 mixture ratio on properties of Ag/C: H nanocomposite prepared by DC sputtering, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering (2013) https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/142450

D. Banerjee, D. Sen, and K. Chattopadhyay, Simple chemical synthesis of porous carbon spheres and its improved field emission by water vapor adsorption, Microporous and mesoporous materials, 171 (2013) 201.

R. Paul et al., Synthesis and characterization of composite films of silver nanoparticles embedded in DLC matrix prepared

by plasma CVD technique, The European Physical JournalApplied Physics 47 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1051/epjap/2009086

Y. Kurahashi, H. Tanaka, M. Terayama and J. Sugimura, Effects of environmental gas and trace water on the friction of DLC sliding with metals, Micromachines, 8 (2017) 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8070217




How to Cite

D. Dergham, M. Ouchabane, H. Sakheri, F. Lekoui, and S. Hassani, “Hydrophobization of paper intended for packaging”, Rev. Mex. Fís., vol. 68, no. 3 May-Jun, pp. 031006 1–, May 2022.