Effect of Sound Vibration towards the Stomata Opening Area via Edge Detection Analysis


  • Surya Jatmika Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
  • Agus Purwanto Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta
  • Wipsar Sunu Brams Dwandaru Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta




Sound vibration, stomata pore area, Rhoeo discolor


The effect of sound vibration (SV) towards plants had been studied for more than 30 years. Many results confirmed that SV influenced various parts of plants, e.g.: the stomata. However, the scientific community was still in doubt of these results. Hence, it is now a matter of giving further proofs and/or insights using new methods. This study aimed to determine the stomata pore movement influenced by SV with new observation and analysis technique based on edge detection. We had directly observed the abaxial stomata of Rhoeo discolor plant exposed by single SV frequencies of 0 Hz to 7000 Hz with an interval of 1000 Hz. The main device used in the observation was a microscope. The observation was conducted before, during, and after the SV exposure. The measurement of the stomata pore area utilized an image capture, which was then analyzed with edge detection technique. These edges were used as an indicator in the calculation of the stomata pore area in the pixel unit. The result showed that SV with frequency of 6000 Hz produced the largest stomata pore area, whereas the frequencies of 2000 Hz and 3000 Hz gave smaller stomata pore areas. Therefore, a single frequency of SV influenced the stomata pore area based on the edge detection analysis.


D. Carlson, “Sound” nutrition: will music eliminate world hunger?, US Black Eng. It, (1985) pp. 19-23.

D. Sharma, U. Gupta, A. J. Fernandes, A. Mankad, and H. Solanki, The effect of music on physico-chemical parameters of selected plants, International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences 5 (2015) 282.

W. Cai, H. He, S. Zhu, and N. Wang, Biological effect of audible sound control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) sprout, BioMed Research International, 2014 (2014) 1, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/931740.

D. Vanol and R. Vaidya, Effect of types of sound (music and noise) and varying frequency on growth of guar or cluster bean (cyamopsis tetragonoloba) seed germination and growth of plants, Quest, 2.3 (2014) 9.

V. Chivukula and S. Ramaswamy, Effect of different types of music on Rosa Chinensis plants, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev., 5 (2014) 431, https://doi.org/10.7763/IJESD.2014.V5.522.

T. Van Renterghem, D. Botteldooren, and K. Verheyen, Road traffic noise shielding by vegetation belts of limited depth, J. Sound Vib. 331 (2012) 2404, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2012.01.006.

M. J. M. Martens, Laser-Doppler Vibrometer Measurements of Leaves, in: H. F. Linskens, J. F. Jackson (eds), Physical Methods in Plant Sciences. Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, vol 11 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1990). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-83611-41.

M. Marten, R. Hedrich, and M. R. G. Roelfsema, Blue light inhibits guard cell plasma membrane anion channels in a phototropin-dependent manner, The Plant Journal 50 (2007) 29, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.03026.x.

C. Eisenach and A. D. Angeli, Ion transport at the vacuole during stomatal movements, Plant Physiology, 174 (2017) 520, https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.00130.

W. H. Outlaw and J. Manchester, Guard cell starch concentration quantitatively related to stomatal aperture, Plant Physiology, 64 (1979) 79, https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.64.1.79.

D. J. Kim and J. S. Lee, Current theories for mechanism of stomatal opening: influence of blue light, mesophyll cells, and sucrose, Journal of Plant Biology, 50 (2007) 523, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03030704.

L. D. Talbott and E. Zeiger, The role of sucrose in guard cell osmoregulation, Journal of Experimental Biology 49 (1998) 329, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23695966.

A. Wild and G. Wolf, The effect of different light intensities on the frequency and size of stomata, the size of cells, the number, size and chlorophyll content of chloroplasts in the mesophyll and the guard cells during the ontogeny of primary leaves of Sinapis alba, Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenphysiologie, 97 (1980) 325, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-328X(80)80006-7.

Z. Xu, Y. Jiang, B. Jia, and G. Zhou, Elevated-CO2 response of stomata and its dependence on environmental factors, Frontiers in Plant Science 7 (2016) 1-15, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00657.

J. Urban, M. W. Ingwers, M. A. Mcguire, and R. O. Teskey, Increase in leaf temperature opens stomata and decouples net photosynthesis from stomatal conductance in Pinus taeda and Populus deltoides x nigra, Journal of Experimental Botany, 68 (2017) 1757, https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erx052.

G. Glatze, Mineral nutrition and water relations of hemiparasitic mistletoes: a question of partitioning. Experiments with Loranthus europaeus on Quercus petraea and Quercus robur, Oecologia, 56 (1983) 193, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00379691.

L. Arve, S. Torre, J. E. Olsen, and K. K. Tanino, Stomatal Responses to Drought Stress and Air Humidity, in Abiotic Stress in Plants-Mechanisms and Adaptations: InTech, (2011). https://doi.org/10.5772/24661.

I. G. P. Suryadarma, N. Kadarisman, and W. S. B. Dwandaru, The increase of stomata opening area in corn plant stimulated by Dundubia manifera insect sound, Int. J. Eng. Technol. Manag. Res. 6 (2020) 107.

R. H. E. Hassanien, T.-Z. Hou, Y.-F. Li, and B. Li, Advances in effects of sound waves on plants, Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13 (2014) 335, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60492-X.

P. Oliver, Sonic bloom: music to plant’s stomata?, Countrys. Small Stock J. 86 (2002) 72.

D. Baldocchi, Measuring and modelling carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange over a temperate broad-leaved forest during the 1995 summer drought, Plant, Cell and Environment 20 (1997) 1108, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.1997.d01-147.x.

A. A. Fernandez-Jaramillo, C. Duarte-Galvan, L. Garcia-Mier, S. N. Jimenez-Garcia, and L. M. Contreras-Medina, Effects of acoustic waves on plants: An agricultural, ecological, molecular and biochemical perspective, Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam). 235 (2018) 340, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.02.060.

Y. C. Qin, W. C. Lee, Y. C. Choi, and T. W. Kim, Biochemical and physiological changes in plants as a result of different sonic exposures, Ultrasonics 41 (2003) 407, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-624X(03)00103-3.

B. Li et al., Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum, Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 63 (2008) 269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2007.12.012.

W. Xiujuan, W. Bochu, J. Yi, D. Chuanren, and A. Sakanishi, Effect of sound wave on the synthesis of nucleic acid and protein in chrysanthemum, Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces, 29 (2003) 99, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(02)00152-2.

E. Sobiatin, N. Khosiyatun, M. Fatharani, and H. Kuswanto, Murai Batu’s (Copsychus malabaricus) peak frequency sound: the impact toward stomatal pores of the Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L) leaves, Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Fisika Al-Biruni 08 (2019) 177, https://doi.org/10.24042/jipfalbiruni.v0i0.4137.

I. Pujiwati, N. Aini, S. P. Sakti, and B. Guritno, The effect of harmonic frequency and sound intensity on the opening of stomata, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L .) Merrill), Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 41 (2018) 963.

V. Parkash and S. Singh, A review on potential plantbased water stress indicators for vegetable crops, Sustainability, 12 (2020) 3945, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su12103945.

Y. Hendrawan, A. H. Putra, S. H. Sumarlan, and G. Djoyowasito, Plant acoustic frequency technology control system to increase vegetative growth in red-lettuce, Telkomnika, 18 (2020) 2042, http://doi.org/10.12928/telkomnika.v18i4.14158.

S. Keli, X. Baoshu, C. Guoyou, and S. Ziwei, The Effect of alternative stress on the thermodymical properties of cultured tobacco cells, Acta Biophys. Sin., 15 (1999) 579.

M.-J. Jeong et al., Sound frequencies induce drought tolerance in rice plant, Pakistan J. Bot., 46 (2014) 2015.

R. F. Evert and S. E. Eichhorn, The Photosynthesis, light, and life, in Biology of plants 6th Edition, 6th ed., New York: Worth Publisher, (1999) pp. 2404-2425.

L. Ye, H. Wang, M. Du, Y. He, and L. Tao, Weber local descriptor with edge detection and double Gabor orientations for finger vein recognition, in Tenth International Conference on Graphics and Image Processing (ICGIP 2018) (2019) 11069, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2524211.

N. Senthilkumaran and R. Rajesh, Edge detection techniques for image segmentation-A survey of soft computing approaches, Int. J. Recent Trends Eng. 1 (2009) 250,

B. Tahir et al., Feature enhancement framework for brain tumor segmentation and classification, Microsc. Res. Tech. 82 (2019) 803, https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23224.

F. Özyurt, E. Sert, E. Avci, and E. Dogantekin, Brain tumor detection based on Convolutional Neural Network with neutrosophic expert maximum fuzzy sure entropy, Meas. J. Int. Meas. Confed. 147 (2019) 106830, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2019.07.058.

K. Omasa and M. Onoe, Measurement of stomatal aperture by digital image processing, Plant Cell Physiol. 25 (1984) 1379, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a076848.

Rashmi, M. Kumar, and R. Saxena, Algorithm and technique on various edge detection: a survey, Signal & Image Processing: An International Journal 4 (2013) 65.

Chinu and A. Chhabra, Overview and comparative analysis of edge detection techniques in digital image processing, International Journal of Information & Computation Technology 4 (2014) 973, http://www.irphouse.com.

Nisha, R. Mehra, and L. Sharma, Comparative analysis of Canny and Prewitt edge detection techniques used in image processing, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 28 (2015) 48.

V. Gupta, D. K. Singh, and P. Sharma, Image segmentation using various edge detection operators: a comparative study, International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 4 (2016) 14819.

S. Das, Comparison of various edge detection technique, International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processsing, and Pattern Recognition 9 (2016) 143, http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijsip.2016.9.2.13.

S. S. Veer, Comparative study of edge detectors for brain tumor MRI images, Renewable Research Journal, 3 (2015) 231.

G. Singh and E. H. Singh, Study and comparison of various techniques of image edge detection, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 4 (2014) 908.

S. Malik and T. Kumar, Comparative analysis of edge detection between gray scale and color image, Commucations on Applied Electronics 5 (2016) 38.

R. Chandwadkar, S. Dhole, V. Gadewar, D. Raut, and S. A. Tiwaskar, Comparison of edge detection tecniques, Proceedings of 6th IRAJ International Conference (2013), pp. 134.

R. C. Mishra, R. Ghosh, and H. Bae, Plant acoustics: in the search of a sound mechanism for sound signaling in plants, Journal of Experimental Botany, 67 (2016) 4483, https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw235.

I. Pujiwati, Djuhari, The pattern of stomatal opening through the exposure of high-frequency sound wave with the different duration and age of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)), Agricultural Science, 2 (2014) 69, http://repository.unisma.ac.id/handle/123456789/2155.

J. Y. Kim, S. I. Lee, J. A. Kim, M. Muthusamy, and M. -J. Jeong, Specific audible sound waves improve flavonoid contents and antioxidative properties of sprouts, Scientia Horticulturae, 276 (2021) 109746, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2020.109746.




How to Cite

S. Jatmika, A. Purwanto, and W. S. B. Dwandaru, “Effect of Sound Vibration towards the Stomata Opening Area via Edge Detection Analysis”, Rev. Mex. Fís., vol. 68, no. 5 Sep-Oct, pp. 051402 1–, Aug. 2022.



14 Other areas in Physics