Nonlinear effects and applications for piezoelectric materials
Keywords:Tunable piezoelectric resonators, Nonlinear piezoelectric effects, Lambwave resonators, elastoelectric effect
The requirements of high quality factor, low power consumption, easy design techniques and compatibility with the main standard fabrication processes of integrated circuits (IC) make the tunable piezoelectric resonators a suitable option for the new technologies of fifth generation of telecommunication (5G) and Internet of Things (IoT). In this work the nonlinear state equations for piezoelectric effect are presented. From these equations we may deduce which materials can be used in applications where a hysteresis behavior or resonance frequency tunability are required, additionally, it is shown which crystals have the nonlinear tensor’s symmetry compatible with each application field. A novel model for the tunable piezoelectric devices is shown taking into account the consequences of voltage tuning. Finally, three different ways to design and implement the nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric materials to tune devices are introduced.
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